21 Briefs, wildcard vowel, not contractions, and phrasing

21.1 Learning Objectives

  • Learn briefs for common -ing words
  • Learn how to use the OEU as a wildcard in common words
  • Learn briefs ending in -side
  • Learn as x as, contraction, and pronoun + contraction phrases

21.2 -ing briefs

Many words ending in -ing have strokes with the -G “folded in,” for example, petting as PEGT. For some common words, it is not possible to fold in the -G, usually when the work ends in a k sound. Instead, the ending parts of the word are dropped and the -G added. See the table for examples.

ing briefs
Word Stroke With ing Stroke
accord K-D according K-GD
act ABGT acting A*G
add AD adding AGD
ask SK asking SK-G
be PW being PW-G
break PWRAEBG breaking PWRAEG
bring PWREU bringing PWREUG
build PWEULD building PW-LG
check KHEBG checking KHEG
consider KR considering KR-G
continue T-PB continuing T-PBG
cook KAOBG cooking KAOG
do TKO doing TK*G, TKAOG
drink TKREUPBG drinking TKREUG
during TKURG
examine KP examining KP-G
include KHRU including KHRUG
interest TR interesting TR-G
look HRAOBG looking HRAOG
make PHAEUBG making PHAEUG
manufacture PH-F manufacturing PH-FG
measure PH*ERB measuring PH-RBG
nothing TPHOG
pat PAT patting PAGT
persist PAOFT persisting PAOG
pull PUL pulling PULG
put PUT putting PUGT
regard RARD regarding RARGD
remember RER remembering RERG
take TAEUBG taking TAEUG
think THEU thinking THEUG
track TRABG tracking TRAG
walk WAUBG walking WAUG
win WEUPB winning W-G
work WORBG working WOG
write WREU writing WREUG

21.3 The OEU wildcard

The OEU combination can be used as a “wildcard” to replace other sounds in a stroke. The oi sound is uncommon and so the strokes with OEU will not conflict with others. The OEU combination appears to be used most frequently for words ending in -y.

OEU words
Word Stroke Note
auto OEUT
beta PWOEUT
bicycle PWOEUBG
China KHOEUPB
copy KOEUP
county KOEUPBT
cycle SOEUBG
deny TKOEUPB
dirty TKOEURT
focus TPOEUBGS
glory TKPWHROEUR
greedy TKPWROEUD
healthy HOEUFLT
heavy HOEUF
hero HOEUR
history HOEUFRT
loyal HROEUL
lucky HROEUBG
major PHOEUPBLG
memory PHOEURPL
mystery PHOEUFRT
radio ROEUD
recycle ROEUBG
shadow SHOEUD
shiny SHOEUPB
statue STOEUT
steno STOEUPB
study STOEU
superior SPOEUR
survey SOEUFR
theory THOEUR
tiny TOEUPB
William WOEUPL
window WOEUPBD

21.4 -side briefs

The -side ending words use a -DZ as part of the stroke.

-side briefs
Word Stroke Note
backside PWABGDZ
downside TKOUDZ
inside TPH-DZ
left-hand side HR-PBDZ
left side HR-DZ
other side O*ERDZ
outside OUDZ
right-hand side R-PBDZ
subside SUBDZ
that side THADZ
this side TH-DZ
topside TOPDZ
upside UPDZ
what side WHADZ
which side KH-DZ

21.5 The as x as phrases

The as x as are written using strokes with S- and -S or -Z and the x as the word in the middle. For example, as long as is written with SHROPBGS.

as x as
Stroke Note
as bad as SPWADZ
as best as SPWEFTS
as big as SPWEUGS
as broad as SPWRAODZ
as close as SKHROES
as far as STPARS
as fast as STPAFTS
as free as STPRAOES
as fresh as STPRERBS
as good as STKPWAODZ
as hard as SHA*RDZ SHARDS would write shards
as high as SHAO*EUS
as large as SHRARPBLGS
as long as SHROPBGS
as low as SHRO*ES SHROES would write slows
as mad as SPHADZ
as many as SPHAEPBS
as much as SPHUFPS
as near as STPHAO*ERS STPHAOERS would write sneers
as odd as SO*DZ SODZ would write sod
as quick as SKW*EULGS note that as quickly as has the stroke without the \(*\)
as quickly as SKWEULGS
as small as SPHAULS
as soon as SAOPBS
as strong as STROPBGS
as well as SW-LS

21.6 Contractions

21.6.1 not contractions

Plover has briefs for phrases involving * not and the contraction *n't. For contractions, the brief usually ends in PBT, for example didn't as TK-PBT . The full forms use PBLT as the ending.

not contractions
Full Stroke Contraction Stroke
cannot KAPBLT can’t K-PBT
could not KOPBLT couldn’t KOPBT
did not TK-PBLT didn’t TK-PBT
does not doesn’t TKOPBT
do not TKPHOT don’t TKOEPBT
has not HAPBLT hasn’t HAFPBT
have not SR-PBLT haven’t SR-PBT
is not S-PBLT isn’t S-PBT
must not mustn’t PHUFPBT
should not SH-PBLT shouldn’t SH-PBT
was not wasn’t WAEPBT
were not WR-PBLT weren’t WR-PBT
would not WOPBLT wouldn’t WOPBT

While slower and requiring a second stroke, it is possible to add n't to any word by using *PBT . For example, RAT/*PBT will create ratn't, similar to how AEU is used to add 's to the last word.

21.6.2 'd and 'll contractions

To add 'd or 'll to any word, use the *D and -L respectively. Briefs exist for pronoun + 'd and + 'll .

21.6.3 Table of Pronoun Contractions

Plover’s contractions are not the most consistent. While most pronoun + contractions use the \(*\) key, some do not, such as some I and we combinations. There are more consistent phrasing systems for use with Plover, such as Jade’s Phrasing and Waleed Khan.

'd 'll 're ’s ’ve
he AOED *EL HAO*ES
how HOUD HOU/*R HO*US
I AOEUD AOEUL AO*EUF
it T*D T*L T*S
she SHAO*ED SHAO*EL SHAO*ES
that THA*D THA*L THA*S THA*F
there THR*D THR*L THR*S THR*F
they THA*EUD THA*EUL THA*EUR THA*EUF
this TH*L
we WAOED WAO*EL WAO*ER W*EF, WAOEF
what WHA*D WHA*L WHA*S WHA*F
when WH*D WH*L WH*S WH*F
where WR*D WR*L WR*S WR*F
who WHO*D WHO*L WHO*S WHO*F
why KWR*D
you *UD KWRAO*UL KWRAO*UR , UR KWRAO*UF , UF

21.7 Exercises

21.7.1 Write

  1. accord accord accord according according according act act act acting acting acting
  2. add add add adding adding adding ask ask ask asking asking asking
  3. be be be being being being break break break breaking breaking breaking
  4. bring bring bring bringing bringing bringing
  5. build build build building building building check check check checking checking checking
  6. consider consider consider considering considering considering continue continue continue continuing continuing continuing
  7. cook cook cook cooking cooking cooking do do do doing doing doing
  8. drink drink drink drinking drinking drinking
  9. during during during examine examine examine examining examining examining include include include including including including
  10. interest interest interest interesting interesting interesting look look look looking looking looking
  11. make make make making making making manufacture manufacture manufacture manufacturing manufacturing manufacturing
  12. measure measure measure measuring measuring measuring nothing nothing nothing pat pat pat patting patting patting
  13. persist persist persist persisting persisting persisting pull pull pull pulling pulling pulling
  14. put put put putting putting putting regard regard regard regarding regarding regarding
  15. remember remember remember remembering remembering remembering take take take taking taking taking
  16. think think think thinking thinking thinking track track track tracking tracking tracking
  17. walk walk walk walking walking walking win win win winning winning winning
  18. work work work working working working write write write writing writing writing
  19. auto auto auto beta beta beta bicycle bicycle bicycle China China China copy copy copy
  20. cycle cycle cycle deny deny deny dirty dirty dirty focus focus focus glory glory glory
  21. greedy greedy greedy healthy healthy healthy heavy heavy heavy hero hero hero history history history
  22. loyal loyal loyal lucky lucky lucky major major major memory memory memory mystery mystery mystery
  23. radio radio radio recycle recycle recycle shadow shadow shadow shiny shiny shiny statue statue statue
  24. steno steno steno study study study superior superior superior survey survey survey theory theory theory
  25. tiny tiny tiny William William William window window window
  26. backside backside backside downside downside downside inside inside inside outside outside outside subside subside subside
  27. topside topside topside upside upside upside
  28. he'd he'd he'd how'd how'd how'd I'd I'd I'd it'd it'd it'd she'd she'd she'd
  29. that'd that'd that'd there'd there'd there'd they'd they'd they'd we'd we'd we'd what'd what'd what'd
  30. when'd when'd when'd where'd where'd where'd who'd who'd who'd why'd why'd why'd you'd you'd you'd
  31. he'll he'll he'll I'll I'll I'll it'll it'll it'll she'll she'll she'll that'll that'll that'll
  32. there'll there'll there'll they'll they'll they'll we'll we'll we'll what'll what'll what'll when'll when'll when'll
  33. where'll where'll where'll who'll who'll who'll you'll you'll you'll
  34. how're how're how're they're they're they're we're we're we're you're you're you're
  35. he's he's he's how's how's how's it's it's it's she's she's she's that's that's that's
  36. there's there's there's what's what's what's when's when's when's where's where's where's who's who's who's
  37. I've I've I've that've that've that've there've there've there've they've they've they've we've we've we've
  38. what've what've what've when've when've when've where've where've where've who've who've who've you've you've you've

21.7.2 Write with sound

Controls
  1. left-hand side left-hand side left-hand side
  2. left side left side left side
  3. other side other side other side
  4. right-hand side right-hand side right-hand side
  5. that side that side that side
  6. this side this side this side
  7. what side what side what side
  8. which side which side which side
  9. as bad as as bad as as bad as
  10. as best as as best as as best as
  11. as big as as big as as big as
  12. as broad as as broad as as broad as
  13. as close as as close as as close as
  14. as far as as far as as far as
  15. as fast as as fast as as fast as
  16. as free as as free as as free as
  17. as fresh as as fresh as as fresh as
  18. as good as as good as as good as
  19. as hard as as hard as as hard as
  20. as high as as high as as high as
  21. as large as as large as as large as
  22. as long as as long as as long as
  23. as low as as low as as low as
  24. as mad as as mad as as mad as
  25. as many as as many as as many as
  26. as much as as much as as much as
  27. as near as as near as as near as
  28. as odd as as odd as as odd as
  29. as quick as as quick as as quick as
  30. as quickly as as quickly as as quickly as
  31. as small as as small as as small as
  32. as soon as as soon as as soon as
  33. as strong as as strong as as strong as
  34. as well as as well as as well as
  35. cannot can't could not couldn't cannot can't could not couldn't cannot can't could not couldn't
  36. did not didn't does not doesn't did not didn't does not doesn't did not didn't does not doesn't
  37. do not don't has not hasn't do not don't has not hasn't do not don't has not hasn't
  38. have not haven't is not isn't have not haven't is not isn't have not haven't is not isn't
  39. must not mustn't should not shouldn't must not mustn't should not shouldn't must not mustn't should not shouldn't
  40. was not wasn't were not weren't was not wasn't were not weren't was not wasn't were not weren't
  41. would not won't would not won't would not won't
  42. Joke, something said or done to make one laugh. Joke, something said or done to make one laugh. Joke, something said or done to make one laugh.
  43. I've lost my knife. I've lost my knife. I've lost my knife.
  44. Haven't, have not. Haven't, have not. Haven't, have not.
  45. Hadn't, had not. Hadn't, had not. Hadn't, had not.
  46. Fourteen, ten and four. Fourteen, ten and four. Fourteen, ten and four.
  47. My cousin will be fourteen years old tomorrow. My cousin will be fourteen years old tomorrow. My cousin will be fourteen years old tomorrow.
  48. Don't form bad habits. Don't form bad habits. Don't form bad habits.
  49. Covering, anything that covers or hides something else. Covering, anything that covers or hides something else. Covering, anything that covers or hides something else.
  50. This is a copy of her dress. This is a copy of her dress. This is a copy of her dress.
  51. Aren't, are not. Aren't, are not. Aren't, are not.
  52. Does Mother appear to be tired? Does Mother appear to be tired? Does Mother appear to be tired?
  53. The men are building a house. The men are building a house. The men are building a house.
  54. A barn is a building. A barn is a building. A barn is a building.
  55. Clothes, covering for the body. Clothes, covering for the body. Clothes, covering for the body.
  56. Couldn't, a short way of saying could not. Couldn't, a short way of saying could not. Couldn't, a short way of saying could not.
  57. Doesn't, a short way of saying does not. Doesn't, a short way of saying does not. Doesn't, a short way of saying does not.
  58. Don't dirty your shoes. Don't dirty your shoes. Don't dirty your shoes.
  59. The streets dried quickly after the shower. The streets dried quickly after the shower. The streets dried quickly after the shower.
  60. Forgot, did not remember. Forgot, did not remember. Forgot, did not remember.
  61. Heavy, not light. More than usually; as, a heavy rain. Heavy, not light. More than usually; as, a heavy rain. Heavy, not light. More than usually; as, a heavy rain.
  62. Proud, well pleased with. Thinking too well of one's self. Proud, well pleased with. Thinking too well of one's self. Proud, well pleased with. Thinking too well of one's self.
  63. She will wipe the dirt from the window sill. She will wipe the dirt from the window sill. She will wipe the dirt from the window sill.
  64. Storm, a heavy fall of rain or snow, usually with a strong wind. Storm, a heavy fall of rain or snow, usually with a strong wind. Storm, a heavy fall of rain or snow, usually with a strong wind.
  65. True, not false; according to the facts; correct. True, not false; according to the facts; correct. True, not false; according to the facts; correct.
  66. You smile while I write. You smile while I write. You smile while I write.
  67. The child may climb the hill and slide down twice. The child may climb the hill and slide down twice. The child may climb the hill and slide down twice.
  68. Wouldn't, a short way of saying would not. Wouldn't, a short way of saying would not. Wouldn't, a short way of saying would not.
  69. Shed, a small building for keeping animals warm or for storing things. To throw off. Shed, a small building for keeping animals warm or for storing things. To throw off. Shed, a small building for keeping animals warm or for storing things. To throw off.
  70. Wasn't, a short way of saying was not. Wasn't, a short way of saying was not. Wasn't, a short way of saying was not.
  71. The women cooked a big dinner. The women cooked a big dinner. The women cooked a big dinner.
  72. He studies a little, but I don't think he is trying very hard. He studies a little, but I don't think he is trying very hard. He studies a little, but I don't think he is trying very hard.
  73. I am so tired that I can't go on. I am so tired that I can't go on. I am so tired that I can't go on.
  74. She had taken her books to the library before she went to play. She had taken her books to the library before she went to play. She had taken her books to the library before she went to play.
  75. Stairs, steps leading from one story of a building to another. Stairs, steps leading from one story of a building to another. Stairs, steps leading from one story of a building to another.
  76. Do not spoil the baby. Do not spoil the baby. Do not spoil the baby.
  77. I don't know how to score it. I don't know how to score it. I don't know how to score it.
  78. Learning, seeing how and practicing. Studying. Learning, seeing how and practicing. Studying. Learning, seeing how and practicing. Studying.
  79. It's, a short way of saying it is. It's, a short way of saying it is. It's, a short way of saying it is.
  80. Don't soil your hands. Don't soil your hands. Don't soil your hands.
  81. I'll, a short way of saying I will. I'll, a short way of saying I will. I'll, a short way of saying I will.
  82. Hasn't, a short way of saying has not. Hasn't, a short way of saying has not. Hasn't, a short way of saying has not.
  83. Family, parents and their children. A group of relatives. Family, parents and their children. A group of relatives. Family, parents and their children. A group of relatives.
  84. He dresses himself very carefully to go to school. He dresses himself very carefully to go to school. He dresses himself very carefully to go to school.
  85. Dirty, not clean; covered with dirt. To make dirty. Dirty, not clean; covered with dirt. To make dirty. Dirty, not clean; covered with dirt. To make dirty.
  86. Don't cry. Don't cry. Don't cry.
  87. Don't be sly. Don't be sly. Don't be sly.
  88. Don't chase the coach. Don't chase the coach. Don't chase the coach.
  89. Don't whine and tease. Don't whine and tease. Don't whine and tease.
  90. Al is going to join the Boy Scouts. Al is going to join the Boy Scouts. Al is going to join the Boy Scouts.
  91. The water was cloudy after the storm. The water was cloudy after the storm. The water was cloudy after the storm.
  92. It was my first flight in an airplane. It was my first flight in an airplane. It was my first flight in an airplane.
  93. Cause, reason. A subject in which many people take an interest. Cause, reason. A subject in which many people take an interest. Cause, reason. A subject in which many people take an interest.
  94. Sara led me ride on her bicycle. Sara led me ride on her bicycle. Sara led me ride on her bicycle.
  95. A window shade or shutter. A window shade or shutter. A window shade or shutter.
  96. Angry, to be cross at; provoked. Angry, to be cross at; provoked. Angry, to be cross at; provoked.
  97. Let me treat you to an ice-cream cone. Let me treat you to an ice-cream cone. Let me treat you to an ice-cream cone.
  98. Tire, a band around the outside of a wheel. To become weary. Tire, a band around the outside of a wheel. To become weary. Tire, a band around the outside of a wheel. To become weary.
  99. Shine, to give light. Look bright when light falls on it; as, the clean windows shine. To make bright by polishing; as, to shine silver, to shine shoes. Shine, to give light. Look bright when light falls on it; as, the clean windows shine. To make bright by polishing; as, to shine silver, to shine shoes. Shine, to give light. Look bright when light falls on it; as, the clean windows shine. To make bright by polishing; as, to shine silver, to shine shoes.
  100. That heavy coat will shed water. That heavy coat will shed water. That heavy coat will shed water.
  101. Remember, to keep in memory; not forget. To call back to one's mind. Remember, to keep in memory; not forget. To call back to one's mind. Remember, to keep in memory; not forget. To call back to one's mind.
  102. Deer, a wild animal. Deer, a wild animal. Deer, a wild animal.
  103. Dance, to move to music according to a pattern. Seem to move lightly or gaily. A party where there is dancing. Dance, to move to music according to a pattern. Seem to move lightly or gaily. A party where there is dancing. Dance, to move to music according to a pattern. Seem to move lightly or gaily. A party where there is dancing.
  104. Comb. To smooth and arrange. A tool for straightening hair or for holding it in place. A growth on the head of certain birds. Comb. To smooth and arrange. A tool for straightening hair or for holding it in place. A growth on the head of certain birds. Comb. To smooth and arrange. A tool for straightening hair or for holding it in place. A growth on the head of certain birds.

21.7.3 Write random sentences

A random subset of sentences will be synthesized. Be patient with the synthesis. It will take a few seconds, especially the first time. The loweest possible WPM is 80, so to decrease overall WPM, increase word gap.

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