12 Common Prefixes and Suffixes

Prefixes and suffixes are very common in the English language. Plover has an exhaustive set of strokes for different prefixes and suffixes. Strokes for common prefixes and suffixes follow the same general theory principles, such as -PBS (“NS”) for -ness. Plover will do its best to add the proper prefix and suffix and adjust the word if necessary for correct spelling, such as box to boxes with PWOBGS/-S. In the dictionary, prefixes have an “attach” operator at the end, and suffixes at the beginning, such as {re^} for re-.

This section is not exhaustive.

12.1 Learning Objectives

  • Learn common prefixes a-, un-, and re-
  • Learn common suffixes -y, -ly, -ry, -ty, -en, -less, -ness and -ful
  • Learn briefs for common words starting with a-, al and any-

12.2 a-

The a- prefix such as in alone and apart is represented by the A stroke.

A HROEPB

alone alone alone alone

A PART

apart apart apart apart

For some common words, the briefs will drop the A, or fold the A within the stroke.

Briefs for words starting with a
Word Brief Full Stroke Notes
abort PWORT A/PWORT
about PW Only brief for this word
above PWOF A/PWOF
abuse PWAOUS A/PWAOUS
accept SEP ABG/SEPT AK SEPT for the full stroke
accord K-D A/K-D, A/KORD
account K-T A/KOUPBT
achieve KHEF A/KHAOEF
across KRAOS A/KROS
actual TAOUL ABG/KHUL AK CHUL for the full stroke
admire TKPHAOEUR AD/PHAOEUR D-MIRE
adopt TKOPT A/TKOPT
adorable TKORBL A/TKORBL
adult TKULT A/TKULT
advance SRAPBS AD/SRAPBS
advice SREUS AD/SRAOEUS SRAOEUS will write vice
advise SRAOEUZ AD/SRAOEUZ
agree TKPWRAOE A/TKPWRAOE
alcohol KHOL AL/KO/HOL
allow HROU A/HROU
along HRAOPBG A/HROPBG
among PHOPBG A/PHOPBG
animal TPHAPBL APB/PHAL
announce TPHOUPBS A/TPHOUPBS
ask SK Only brief for this word
assume SAOUPL A/SAOUPL
away WA*EU A/WAEU

12.3 un-

The un prefix such as in unclean and unkind is represented by the UPB stroke.

UPB KLAOEPB

unclean unclean unclean unclean

UPB KEUPBD

unkind unkind unkind unkind

12.4 re-

The re prefix such as in refill and reform is represented by the RE stroke.

RE TPEUL

refill refill refill refill

RE TPORPL

reform reform reform reform

12.5 -er

The -er suffix such as in maker and fuller is represented by the *ER stroke.

PHAEUBG *ER

maker maker maker maker

PHUL *ER

fuller fuller fuller fuller

12.6 -y

The -y suffix such as in funny and puffy is represented by the KWREU stroke.

TPUPB KWREU

funny funny funny funny

PUF KWREU

puffy puffy puffy puffy

12.7 -ly

The -ly suffix in cleanly and roughly is represented by the HREU stroke.

KHRAOEPB HREU

cleanly cleanly cleanly cleanly

RUF HREU

roughly roughly roughly roughly

12.8 -ry

The -ry suffix in finery and eatery is represented by the REU stroke.

TPAOEUPB REU

finery finery finery finery

Note how suffixes can be combined together, for example eatery as eat, -er, -y.

AOET *ER KWREU

eatery eatery eatery eatery

AOET REU

eatery eatery eatery eatery

12.9 -ty

The -ty suffix in mighty and drafty is represented by TEU.

PHAOEUT TEU

mighty mighty mighty mighty

TKRAFT TEU

drafty drafty drafty drafty

12.10 -en

The -en suffix as in kitten, eaten and garden is represented by the *EPB stroke. For some words, PB or EPB would also work in Plover to write the correct word.

KEUT *EPB

kitten kitten kitten kitten

AOET *EPB

eaten eaten eaten eaten

The word garden can be written in multiple ways. If written as gard and -en, Plover will first output guard for the stroke TKPWARD, and once *EPB is stroked, Plover will delete the output guard and output garden.

TKPWARD *EPB

garden garden garden garden

12.11 -less and -ness

The suffixes -less and -nessare represented by the strokes -LS and -PBS in words such as restless and stiffness.

REFT -LS

restless restless restless restless

STEUF -PBS

stiffness stiffness stiffness stiffness

12.12 -ful

The suffix -ful is represented by the stroke -FL in words such as earful and tubful.

AOER -FL

earful earful earful earful

TUB -FL

tubful tubful tubful tubful

12.13 The al- briefs

Word Brief Note
all right HR-RT
almost HR-PL
already HR-RD
alright HR*RT
also HR-S
although HR*T
altogether HR-GT TOGT for together

12.14 The any- briefs

The briefs below start with any, and use TPH as the N sound in order to write the word in one stroke.

Word Stroke Note
any TPHEU
anybody TPHEUB
anymore TPHEUPL
anyone TPHEUPB
anyplace TPHEUPLS
anything TPHEUG
anytime TPHAOEUPL
anyway TPHAE
anywhere TPHEUR

12.15 Exercises

12.15.1 Write

  1. all right all right all right almost almost almost already already already alright alright alright also also also
  2. although although although altogether altogether altogether any any any anybody anybody anybody anymore anymore anymore
  3. anyone anyone anyone anyplace anyplace anyplace anything anything anything
  4. anytime anytime anytime anyway anyway anyway anywhere anywhere anywhere
  5. abort abort abort about about about above above above abuse abuse abuse accept accept accept
  6. accord accord accord account account account achieve achieve achieve across across across actual actual actual
  7. admire admire admire adopt adopt adopt adorable adorable adorable adult adult adult advance advance advance
  8. advice advice advice advise advise advise agree agree agree alcohol alcohol alcohol allow allow allow
  9. along along along among among among animal animal animal announce announce announce ask ask ask
  10. assume assume assume away away away

12.15.2 Write with sound

Controls
  1. Joy, gladness. Joy, gladness. Joy, gladness.
  2. Jolly, full of fun. Jolly, full of fun. Jolly, full of fun.
  3. Mother will always deal fairly with us. Mother will always deal fairly with us. Mother will always deal fairly with us.
  4. Aside, apart; off from the rest. Aside, apart; off from the rest. Aside, apart; off from the rest.
  5. The player ran to third base. The player ran to third base. The player ran to third base.
  6. Arrest, to put in jail; to take to court. To stop. Arrest, to put in jail; to take to court. To stop. Arrest, to put in jail; to take to court. To stop.
  7. Given, handed or presented. Given, handed or presented. Given, handed or presented.
  8. Giving, making a present of. Giving, making a present of. Giving, making a present of.
  9. Higher, more high. Higher, more high. Higher, more high.
  10. Hung, fastened up. Bent or leaned down. Hung, fastened up. Bent or leaned down. Hung, fastened up. Bent or leaned down.
  11. Oil, a kind of fat which is burned to give light and heat and is used to grease machinery. Oil, a kind of fat which is burned to give light and heat and is used to grease machinery. Oil, a kind of fat which is burned to give light and heat and is used to grease machinery.
  12. Wooden, made of wood. Wooden, made of wood. Wooden, made of wood.
  13. Useful, helpful. Useful, helpful. Useful, helpful.
  14. Though, if; although. Though, if; although. Though, if; although.
  15. Given, handed or presented. Given, handed or presented. Given, handed or presented.
  16. Giving, making a present of. Giving, making a present of. Giving, making a present of.
  17. Flock, a group of animals or birds living together. To gather or move in a crowd. Flock, a group of animals or birds living together. To gather or move in a crowd. Flock, a group of animals or birds living together. To gather or move in a crowd.
  18. Animal, a living being that is not a plant. Animal, a living being that is not a plant. Animal, a living being that is not a plant.
  19. A bird is an animal. A bird is an animal. A bird is an animal.
  20. Kindly, in a friendly way; as, to act kindly. Kindly, in a friendly way; as, to act kindly. Kindly, in a friendly way; as, to act kindly.
  21. That is only partly true. That is only partly true. That is only partly true.
  22. I can't see clearly through the mist. I can't see clearly through the mist. I can't see clearly through the mist.
  23. Your work is harder than mine. Your work is harder than mine. Your work is harder than mine.
  24. Harder, with more effort. More difficult. Harder, with more effort. More difficult. Harder, with more effort. More difficult.
  25. Hardly, barely; only just. Hardly, barely; only just. Hardly, barely; only just.
  26. The pond was frozen over. The pond was frozen over. The pond was frozen over.
  27. We fixed the date of our next meeting. We fixed the date of our next meeting. We fixed the date of our next meeting.
  28. I was feeling so cold, I had to put on my coat. I was feeling so cold, I had to put on my coat. I was feeling so cold, I had to put on my coat.
  29. The dog was driven out of the garden. The dog was driven out of the garden. The dog was driven out of the garden.
  30. Cloudy, covered with clouds. Not clear. Cloudy, covered with clouds. Not clear. Cloudy, covered with clouds. Not clear.
  31. Betty has a bad cough. Betty has a bad cough. Betty has a bad cough.
  32. Bid, to say in greeting. To offer as a price. Bid, to say in greeting. To offer as a price. Bid, to say in greeting. To offer as a price.
  33. The coast is beyond what I can afford. The coast is beyond what I can afford. The coast is beyond what I can afford.
  34. Beast, an animal. Beast, an animal. Beast, an animal.
  35. Attend, to go to; to be present at. Attend, to go to; to be present at. Attend, to go to; to be present at.
  36. Tom keeps his account correctly. Tom keeps his account correctly. Tom keeps his account correctly.
  37. Scare, to make afraid. Scare, to make afraid. Scare, to make afraid.
  38. Really, truly, certainly. Really, truly, certainly. Really, truly, certainly.
  39. Dining, eating dinner. Dining, eating dinner. Dining, eating dinner.
  40. Rabbit, a small furry animal. Rabbit, a small furry animal. Rabbit, a small furry animal.
  41. He drove the hens out of the garden. He drove the hens out of the garden. He drove the hens out of the garden.
  42. Fear, fright. To be afraid of. Fear, fright. To be afraid of. Fear, fright. To be afraid of.

12.15.3 Write random sentences

A random subset of sentences will be synthesized. Be patient with the synthesis. It will take a few seconds, especially the first time. The loweest possible WPM is 80, so to decrease overall WPM, increase word gap.

Show generated text
Press submit to generate text