# 2 Fingerspelling (Left side of steno keyboard)

It is possible to write all letters of the alphabet using the $$*$$ key in combination with the keys on the left side and bottom of the steno keyboard. Some consonants and vowels can be written by just using the matching key, while other letters are written using a combination of keys. The letter combinations have remained almost unchanged since the invention of the stenotype, and writers have to memorize them.

## 2.1 Learning Objectives

• Learning fingerspelling of the alphabet with left hand keys on steno keyboard
• Learn briefs using left hand and vowel keys
• Learn how to use the asterisk to delete and the space stroke for adding a space

## 2.2 The $$*$$ key

The $$*$$ or asterisk key is one of the most important keys on the board. It can have multiple uses. Its primary use is to act as a backspace. When a “misstroke” occurs (something is written incorrectly through wrong strokes), the $$*$$ key is pressed in order reverse the operation, and Plover effectively backspaces to remove what was just written. Try it out on the text box below.

The $$*$$ key is also used, as covered in this section, as part of the stroke to write a letter.

## 2.3 Vowels (A, O, E, U, I)

AOEU

#### A with left thumb

To write the letter a, press on the A and $$*$$ keys at the same time, using the left thumb for A, and the left or right index finger for $$*$$. Use the $$*$$ key by itself to correct any mistakes.

A*

aaaa

#### O with left thumb

To write the letter o, press on the O and $$*$$ keys at the same time, using the left thumb for O, and the left or right index finger for $$*$$.

O*

oooo

#### E with right thumb

To write the letter e, press on the E and $$*$$ keys at the same time, using the right thumb for E, and the left or right index finger for $$*$$.

*E

eeee

Pressing E without the $$*$$ key is a brief which represents the word he. Briefs, or abbreviations, are stroke combinations for common words so they can be written quickly rather than in full. For more on briefs, see section 3.2.

E

he he he he

Notice how with writing briefs (words), Plover will automatically insert spaces between words.

#### U with right thumb

To write the letter u, press on the U and $$*$$ keys at the same time, using the right thumb for U, and the left or right index finger for $$*$$.

*U

uuuu

The brief for the word you is represented by U.

U

you you you you

#### I with right thumb

To write the letter i, press on the E, U and $$*$$ keys at the same time, using the right thumb to press on both E and U, and the left or right index finger for $$*$$.

*EU

iiii

The brief for the word I is represented by EU.

EU

I I I I

## 2.4 Top row (S, T, P, H)

The keys on the left top row are S, T, P, and H. On most keyboards, the S key is split into two, one on the top row, and one on the bottom, while most steno machines have one joined S key.

#### S with left pinky

To write the letter s, press on the S- key and $$*$$ keys at the same time, using the left pinky for S-, and the left or right index finger for $$*$$.

S

ssss

Keys on the left side of the keyboard are usually represented by the key followed by the hyphen, such as S-. This is especially important as there is another S key, represented by -S, on the right side of the keyboard.

The brief for the word is is represented by S-.

S-

is is is is

#### T with left ring finger

To write the letter t, press on the T- key and $$*$$ keys at the same time, using the left ring finger for T-, and the left or right index finger for $$*$$.

T*

tttt

The brief for it is represented by T-.

T-

it it it it

#### P with left middle finger

To write the letter p, press on the P- key and $$*$$ keys at the same time, using the left middle finger for P-, and the left or right index finger for $$*$$.

P*

pppp

#### H with left index finger

To write the letter h, press on the H- key and $$*$$ keys at the same time, using the left index finger for H-, and the left or right index finger for $$*$$.

H*

hhhh

The brief for had is represented by H-.

H-

had had had had

## 2.5 Bottom row (K, W, R)

#### K with the left ring finger

To write the letter k, press on the K- key and $$*$$ keys at the same time, using the left ring finger for K-, and the left or right index finger for $$*$$.

K*

kkkk

The brief for can is represented by K-.

K-

can can can can

#### W with the left middle finger

To write the letter w, press on the W- key and $$*$$ keys at the same time, using the left middle finger for W-, and the left or right index finger for $$*$$.

W*

wwww

The brief for with is represented by W-.

W-

with with with with

#### R with the left index finger

To write the letter r, press on the R- key and $$*$$ keys at the same time, using the left index finger for R-, and the left or right index finger for $$*$$.

R*

rrrr

The brief for are is represented by R-.

R-

are are are are

## 2.6 Vertical two-key chords (D, B, L)

#### D by T and K

The letter d is written by pressing on both T- and K- with the left ring finger along with the $$*$$ key.

TK*

dddd

The brief for did is represented by TK-.

TK-

did did did did

#### B by P and W

The letter b is written by pressing on both P- and W- with the left middle finger along with the $$*$$ key.

PW*

bbbb

The brief for about is represented by PW-.

PW-

about about about about

#### L by H and R

The letter l is written by pressing on both H- and R- with the left middle finger along with the $$*$$ key.

HR*

llll

The brief for will is represented by HR-.

HR-

will will will will

## 2.7 Horizontal two-key chords (V, C, F, M, Q)

#### V by S and R

The letter v is written by pressing on both S- and R- with the left pinky and index fingers along with the $$*$$ key.

SR*

vvvv

The brief for have is represented by SR-.

SR-

have have have have

#### C by K and R

The letter c is written by pressing on both K- and R- with the left ring and index fingers along with the $$*$$ key.

KR*

cccc

The brief for consider is represented by KR-.

KR

consider consider consider consider

#### F by T and P

The letter f is written by pressing on both T- and P- with the left ring and middle fingers along with the $$*$$ key.

TP*

ffff

The brief for if is represented by TP-.

TP

if if if if

#### M by P and H

The letter m is written by pressing on both P- and H- with the left middle and index fingers along with the $$*$$ key.

PH*

mmmm

The brief for pH is represented by PH-.

PH-

pH pH pH pH

#### Q by K and W

The letter q is written by pressing on both K- and W- with the left ring and middle fingers along with the $$*$$ key.

KW*

qqqq

The brief for request is represented by KW-.

KW

request request request request

## 2.8 Remaining letters (G, J, N, X, Y, Z)

#### G by T-, K-, P- and W-

The letter g is written by pressing on T-, K-, P- and W- along with the $$*$$ key.

TKPW*

gggg

The brief for go is represented by TKPW-.

TKPW

go go go go

#### J by S-, K-, W- and R-

The letter j is written by pressing on S-, K-, W- and R- along with the $$*$$ key.

SKWR*

jjjj

#### N by T-, P- and H-

The letter n is written by pressing on T-, P- and H- along with the $$*$$ key.

TPH*

nnnn

The brief for in is represented by TPH-.

TPH

in in in in

#### X by K- and P-

The letter x is written by pressing on K- and P- along with the $$*$$ key.

KP*

xxxx

The brief for examine is represented by KP-.

KP

examine examine examine examine

#### Y by K-,W- and R-

The letter y is written by pressing on K-,W- and R- along with the $$*$$ key.

KWR*

yyyy

The brief for why is represented by KWR-.

KWR

why why why why

#### Z by S-, T, K-, P- and W-

The letter z is written by pressing on S, T-, K-, P- and W- along with the $$*$$ key.

STKPW

zzzz

The brief for and is represented by SKP-.

SKP

and and and and

## 2.9 Space

The stroke for writing a space is S-P, using the left hand S- and the right hand -P which is to be pressed with the right middle finger.

S-P

In most cases, the space stroke is not needed as Plover will automatically insert spaces between words as needed. However, sometimes spaces are desired or needed.

## 2.10 Fingerspelling Capitalization

To fingerspell capital letters, use the -P key on the right in combination with the left hand keys and the $$*$$ key.

For example, capital H.

H*P

HHHH
Briefs
Word Stroke Note
he E hE
you U like the sound
I I letter and article are the same
is S- iS
it T- iT
had H- Had
can K- Kan
with W- With
are R- aRe
did TK- Did
about PB- aBout
will HR- wiLL
have SR- haVe
consider KR- ConsideR
if TP- iF
pH PH-
request KW- reQuest
go TKPB- Go
in TPH- iN
examine KP- eXamine
why KWR- like it sounds
and SKP-

## 2.11 Exercises

### 2.11.1 Fingerspell

1. ba ba ba be be be bi bi bi bo bo bo bu bu bu
2. ca ca ca ce ce ce ci ci ci co co co cu cu cu
3. fa fa fa fe fe fe fi fi fi fo fo fo fu fu fu
4. ga ga ga ge ge ge gi gi gi go go go gu gu gu
5. ha ha ha he he he hi hi hi ho ho ho hu hu hu
6. ja ja ja je je je ji ji ji jo jo jo ju ju ju
7. ka ka ka ke ke ke ki ki ki ko ko ko ku ku ku
8. la la la le le le li li li lo lo lo lu lu lu
9. ma ma ma me me me mi mi mi mo mo mo mu mu mu
10. na na na ne ne ne ni ni ni no no no nu nu nu
11. pa pa pa pe pe pe pi pi pi po po po pu pu pu
12. ra ra ra re re re ri ri ri ro ro ro ru ru ru
13. sa sa sa se se se si si si so so so su su su
14. ta ta ta te te te ti ti ti to to to tu tu tu
15. va va va ve ve ve vi vi vi vo vo vo vu vu vu
16. wa wa wa we we we wi wi wi wo wo wo wu wu wu
17. ya ya ya ye ye ye yi yi yi yo yo yo yu yu yu
18. za za za ze ze ze zi zi zi zo zo zo zu zu zu
19. ab ab ab eb eb eb ib ib ib ob ob ob ub ub ub
20. ac ac ac ec ec ec ic ic ic oc oc oc uc uc uc
21. ad ad ad ed ed ed id id id od od od ud ud ud
22. af af af ef ef ef if if if of of of uf uf uf
23. ag ag ag eg eg eg ig ig ig og og og ug ug ug
24. ah ah ah oh oh oh
25. ak ak ak ek ek ek ik ik ik ok ok ok uk uk uk
26. al al al el el el il il il ol ol ol ul ul ul
27. am am am em em em im im im om om om um um um
28. an an an en en en in in in on on on un un un
29. ap ap ap ep ep ep ip ip ip op op op up up up
30. ar ar ar er er er ir ir ir or or or ur ur ur
31. as as as es es es is is is os os os us us us
32. at at at et et et it it it ot ot ot ut ut ut
33. av av av ev ev ev iv iv iv ov ov ov uv uv uv
34. aw aw aw ew ew ew ow ow ow
35. ax ax ax ex ex ex ix ix ix ox ox ox ux ux ux
36. ay ay ay ey ey ey oy oy oy
37. az az az ez ez ez iz iz iz oz oz oz uz uz uz
38. bla bla bla ble ble ble bli bli bli blo blo blo blu blu blu
39. bra bra bra bre bre bre bri bri bri bro bro bro bru bru bru
40. cha cha cha che che che chi chi chi cho cho cho chu chu chu
41. cla cla cla cle cle cle cli cli cli clo clo clo clu clu clu
42. cra cra cra cre cre cre cri cri cri cro cro cro cru cru cru
43. dra dra dra dre dre dre dri dri dri dro dro dro dru dru dru
44. dwa dwa dwa dwe dwe dwe dwi dwi dwi
45. fla fla fla fle fle fle fli fli fli flo flo flo flu flu flu
46. fra fra fra fre fre fre fri fri fri fro fro fro fru fru fru
47. gla gla gla gle gle gle gli gli gli glo glo glo glu glu glu
48. gra gra gra gre gre gre gri gri gri gro gro gro gru gru gru
49. kna kna kna kne kne kne kni kni kni kno kno kno knu knu knu
50. pha pha pha phe phe phe phi phi phi pho pho pho phu phu phu
51. pla pla pla ple ple ple pli pli pli plo plo plo plu plu plu
52. pra pra pra pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pru pru pru
53. qua qua qua que que que qui qui qui quo quo quo
54. sca sca sca sce sce sce sci sci sci sco sco sco scu scu scu
55. sha sha sha she she she shi shi shi sho sho sho shu shu shu
56. ska ska ska ske ske ske ski ski ski sko sko sko sku sku sku
57. sla sla sla sle sle sle sli sli sli slo slo slo slu slu slu
58. sma sma sma sme sme sme smi smi smi smo smo smo smu smu smu
59. sna sna sna sne sne sne sni sni sni sno sno sno snu snu snu
60. spa spa spa spe spe spe spi spi spi spo spo spo spu spu spu
61. sta sta sta ste ste ste sti sti sti sto sto sto stu stu stu
62. swa swa swa swe swe swe swi swi swi swo swo swo swu swu swu
63. tha tha tha the the the thi thi thi tho tho tho thu thu thu
64. tra tra tra tre tre tre tri tri tri tro tro tro tru tru tru
65. twa twa twa twe twe twe twi twi twi two two two
66. wha wha wha whe whe whe whi whi whi who who who
67. wra wra wra wre wre wre wri wri wri wro wro wro wru wru wru
68. he he he
69. you you you
70. I I I
71. is is is
72. it it it
73. had had had
74. can can can
75. with with with
76. are are are
77. did did did
78. about about about
79. will will will
80. have have have
81. consider consider consider
82. if if if
83. pH pH pH
84. request request request
85. go go go
86. in in in
87. examine examine examine
88. why why why
89. and and and
90. BA BA BA BE BE BE BI BI BI BO BO BO BU BU BU
91. CA CA CA CE CE CE CI CI CI CO CO CO CU CU CU
92. FA FA FA FE FE FE FI FI FI FO FO FO FU FU FU
93. GA GA GA GE GE GE GI GI GI GO GO GO GU GU GU
94. HA HA HA HE HE HE HI HI HI HO HO HO HU HU HU
95. JA JA JA JE JE JE JI JI JI JO JO JO JU JU JU
96. KA KA KA KE KE KE KI KI KI KO KO KO KU KU KU
97. LA LA LA LE LE LE LI LI LI LO LO LO LU LU LU
98. MA MA MA ME ME ME MI MI MI MO MO MO MU MU MU
99. NA NA NA NE NE NE NI NI NI NO NO NO NU NU NU
100. PA PA PA PE PE PE PI PI PI PO PO PO PU PU PU
101. RA RA RA RE RE RE RI RI RI RO RO RO RU RU RU
102. SA SA SA SE SE SE SI SI SI SO SO SO SU SU SU
103. TA TA TA TE TE TE TI TI TI TO TO TO TU TU TU
104. VA VA VA VE VE VE VI VI VI VO VO VO VU VU VU
105. WA WA WA WE WE WE WI WI WI WO WO WO WU WU WU
106. YA YA YA YE YE YE YI YI YI YO YO YO YU YU YU
107. ZA ZA ZA ZE ZE ZE ZI ZI ZI ZO ZO ZO ZU ZU ZU
108. AB AB AB EB EB EB IB IB IB OB OB OB UB UB UB
109. AC AC AC EC EC EC IC IC IC OC OC OC UC UC UC
110. AD AD AD ED ED ED ID ID ID OD OD OD UD UD UD
111. AF AF AF EF EF EF IF IF IF OF OF OF UF UF UF
112. AG AG AG EG EG EG IG IG IG OG OG OG UG UG UG
113. AH AH AH OH OH OH
114. AK AK AK EK EK EK IK IK IK OK OK OK UK UK UK
115. AL AL AL EL EL EL IL IL IL OL OL OL UL UL UL
116. AM AM AM EM EM EM IM IM IM OM OM OM UM UM UM
117. AN AN AN EN EN EN IN IN IN ON ON ON UN UN UN
118. AP AP AP EP EP EP IP IP IP OP OP OP UP UP UP
119. AR AR AR ER ER ER IR IR IR OR OR OR UR UR UR
120. AS AS AS ES ES ES IS IS IS OS OS OS US US US
121. AT AT AT ET ET ET IT IT IT OT OT OT UT UT UT
122. AV AV AV EV EV EV IV IV IV OV OV OV UV UV UV
123. AW AW AW EW EW EW OW OW OW
124. AX AX AX EX EX EX IX IX IX OX OX OX UX UX UX
125. AY AY AY EY EY EY OY OY OY
126. AZ AZ AZ EZ EZ EZ IZ IZ IZ OZ OZ OZ UZ UZ UZ
127. BLA BLA BLA BLE BLE BLE BLI BLI BLI BLO BLO BLO BLU BLU BLU
128. BRA BRA BRA BRE BRE BRE BRI BRI BRI BRO BRO BRO BRU BRU BRU
129. CHA CHA CHA CHE CHE CHE CHI CHI CHI CHO CHO CHO CHU CHU CHU
130. CLA CLA CLA CLE CLE CLE CLI CLI CLI CLO CLO CLO CLU CLU CLU
131. CRA CRA CRA CRE CRE CRE CRI CRI CRI CRO CRO CRO CRU CRU CRU
132. DRA DRA DRA DRE DRE DRE DRI DRI DRI DRO DRO DRO DRU DRU DRU
133. DWA DWA DWA DWE DWE DWE DWI DWI DWI
134. FLA FLA FLA FLE FLE FLE FLI FLI FLI FLO FLO FLO FLU FLU FLU
135. FRA FRA FRA FRE FRE FRE FRI FRI FRI FRO FRO FRO FRU FRU FRU
136. GLA GLA GLA GLE GLE GLE GLI GLI GLI GLO GLO GLO GLU GLU GLU
137. GRA GRA GRA GRE GRE GRE GRI GRI GRI GRO GRO GRO GRU GRU GRU
138. KNA KNA KNA KNE KNE KNE KNI KNI KNI KNO KNO KNO KNU KNU KNU
139. PHA PHA PHA PHE PHE PHE PHI PHI PHI PHO PHO PHO PHU PHU PHU
140. PLA PLA PLA PLE PLE PLE PLI PLI PLI PLO PLO PLO PLU PLU PLU
141. PRA PRA PRA PRE PRE PRE PRI PRI PRI PRO PRO PRO PRU PRU PRU
142. QUA QUA QUA QUE QUE QUE QUI QUI QUI QUO QUO QUO
143. SCA SCA SCA SCE SCE SCE SCI SCI SCI SCO SCO SCO SCU SCU SCU
144. SHA SHA SHA SHE SHE SHE SHI SHI SHI SHO SHO SHO SHU SHU SHU
145. SKA SKA SKA SKE SKE SKE SKI SKI SKI SKO SKO SKO SKU SKU SKU
146. SLA SLA SLA SLE SLE SLE SLI SLI SLI SLO SLO SLO SLU SLU SLU
147. SMA SMA SMA SME SME SME SMI SMI SMI SMO SMO SMO SMU SMU SMU
148. SNA SNA SNA SNE SNE SNE SNI SNI SNI SNO SNO SNO SNU SNU SNU
149. SPA SPA SPA SPE SPE SPE SPI SPI SPI SPO SPO SPO SPU SPU SPU
150. STA STA STA STE STE STE STI STI STI STO STO STO STU STU STU
151. SWA SWA SWA SWE SWE SWE SWI SWI SWI SWO SWO SWO SWU SWU SWU
152. THA THA THA THE THE THE THI THI THI THO THO THO THU THU THU
153. TRA TRA TRA TRE TRE TRE TRI TRI TRI TRO TRO TRO TRU TRU TRU
154. TWA TWA TWA TWE TWE TWE TWI TWI TWI TWO TWO TWO
155. WHA WHA WHA WHE WHE WHE WHI WHI WHI WHO WHO WHO
156. WRA WRA WRA WRE WRE WRE WRI WRI WRI WRO WRO WRO WRU WRU WRU
157. HE HE HE
158. YOU YOU YOU
159. I I I
160. IS IS IS
161. IT IT IT
162. HAD HAD HAD
163. CAN CAN CAN
164. WITH WITH WITH
165. ARE ARE ARE
166. DID DID DID
167. ABOUT ABOUT ABOUT
168. WILL WILL WILL
169. HAVE HAVE HAVE
170. CONSIDER CONSIDER CONSIDER
171. IF IF IF
172. PH PH PH
173. REQUEST REQUEST REQUEST
174. GO GO GO
175. IN IN IN
176. EXAMINE EXAMINE EXAMINE
177. WHY WHY WHY
178. AND AND AND

### 2.11.3 Write with sound

Controls
1. is it is it is it
2. it is it is it is
3. is he is he is he
4. he is he is he is
5. are you are you are you
6. you are you are you are
7. you had you had you had
8. it had it had it had
9. he had he had he had
10. I had I had I had
11. had you had you had you
12. had it had it had it
13. had he had he had he
14. had I had I had I
15. you can you can you can
16. it can it can it can
17. he can he can he can
18. I can I can I can
19. can you can you can you
20. can it can it can it
21. can he can he can he
22. can I can I can I
23. you did you did you did
24. it did it did it did
25. he did he did he did
26. I did I did I did
27. did you did you did you
28. did it did it did it
29. did he did he did he
30. did I did I did I
31. you did consider you did consider you did consider
32. he did consider he did consider he did consider
33. I did consider I did consider I did consider
34. about it about it about it
35. about you about you about you
36. will you will you will you
37. will it will it will it
38. will he will he will he
39. will I will I will I
40. will you consider will you consider will you consider
41. will he consider will he consider will he consider
42. will I consider will I consider will I consider
43. you will you will you will
44. it will it will it will
45. he will he will he will
46. I will I will I will
47. you have you have you have
48. I have I have I have
49. if you if you if you
50. if it if it if it
51. if he if he if he
52. if I if I if I
53. if you will if you will if you will
54. if it will if it will if it will
55. if he will if he will if he will
56. if I will if I will if I will
57. you request you request you request
58. he request he request he request
59. I request I request I request
60. you go you go you go
61. he go he go he go
62. I go I go I go
63. you go in you go in you go in
64. he go in he go in he go in
65. I go in I go in I go in
66. why you why you why you
67. why he why he why he
68. why I why I why I
69. you and I you and I you and I
70. he and I he and I he and I

### 2.11.4 Write random sentences

A random subset of sentences will be synthesized. Be patient with the synthesis. It will take a few seconds, especially the first time. The loweest possible WPM is 80, so to decrease overall WPM, increase word gap.

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