27 Advanced Dictation

27.1 How to use this section

This section contains texts with a Flesch-Kincaid readability score lower than 70, or roughly secondary school-level English. For details on how the section is organized, see 25.1.

27.2 Practice texts

Controls

27.2.1 Plant Food Factories

Selected Words

carbohydrate

KA*ERB

carbon

KARPB

carbon dioxide

KOEUBGS

chemical

KHEL

chlorophyll

KHROR TPEUL

distributed

TKR-BTD

from the

TPR-T

hydrogen

TKROEUPB

in the

TPH-T

mineral

PHEUPBL

of the

-FT

on the

OPBT

oxygen

SKWRO*EUPBGS

through the

THRUT

to the

TOT

when the

WHEPBT

with the

W-T

Text

With the help of the sun, plants can make food. They manufacture starch and sugar in their own factories with only the sunlight to furnish the energy for "turning the wheels". Just how this process goes on will some day be an interesting discovery.

The production of food by plants depends upon the resources, or raw materials, which they use. Starch and sugar are called carbohydrates because they are chemical compounds of carbon and water. Green plants make not only carbohydrates, but also foods containing minerals. Where does the plant get its raw materials -- carbon, water, and minerals?

Roots, which grow from the stem of the plant, reach to a considerable depth and absorb water and minerals from the soil. These materials, after flowing up through the fibers in the stem, are distributed to the cells of the leaves. The carbon dioxide in the air is absorbed through tiny openings on the leaves of the plant. In the presence of certain green bodies in the leave cells called "chlorophyll", the carbon dioxide unites with the oxygen and hydrogen in the water to form sugar. When the plant has made enough sugar, the extra food is stored as starch

27.2.2 Early Shipping

Selected Words

and can

SKP-BG

and the

SKP-T

and to

TAOPBD

at the

TE

can understand

development

SREPLT

England

TPHU TKPWHRAEPBD

excitement

KPAOEUPLT

for the

TP-RT

helped to

THOEPD

in the

TPH-T

instead of

STPHEFD

manufactured

PH-FD

New England

Nova Scotia

TPHOE SRA SKOE SHA

of the

-FT

passenger

PAFPBG

to the

TOT

went to

TWOEPBT

West Indies

WEFT EUPBD AO*E -S

with the

W-T

years ago

KWRAOERGS

Text

Anyone looking today at the rocky shores of Nova Scotia can understand why, two hundred years ago, the men of nearly every settlement along the coast turned to the sea for their living, instead of the soil -- and can pardon them for it. The great variety of fish in the sea helped to make the fishing industry a simple and natural development.

By about 1750 commerce with England and the West Indies had gone forward by leaps and bounds. A whaling voyage alone would sharpen the wits of any sailor, and visits to foreign lands provided excitement for a long time.

The sailing ships, made just the right width and length for the greatest speed, had plenty of space to carry fish, flour, and other articles to England and to bring manufactured goods home. Fish went to the West Indies, also, and the ships returned with sugar and with molasses for making rum. Later ships began carrying passengers from seaport to seaport along the coast and helped to bring Nova Scotia into touch with the New England colonies.

27.2.3 Typhoid Fever and Tuberculosis

Selected Words

able to

TAOEUBL

as a

SA*Z

as a result

SRULT

as much

SPHUFP

as much as

SPHUFPS

disposal

STKPOEFL

have a

SRA

have been

SR-B

in the

TPH-T

into the

TPHAOT

much as

PHUFPS

number of

TPHUFPL

of the

-FT

one of

WUFPB

one of the

WUFPBT

pasteurized

PAS KHUR AOEUZ -D

prevention

PREFPBGS

sewage

SAOUPBLG

they do

TKHOE

tuberculosis

T*B

typhoid

TAOEU TKOEUD

we have

SWRAOE

which is

WEUS

who is

WHOS

years ago

KWRAOERGS

Text

A number of years ago one of the most dread diseases was typhoid fever. The typhoid germ was most often taken into the body in milk or water. Poor living conditions, flies, and lack of proper sewage disposal helped spread the disease. Also, certain people became "typhoid carriers", which meant that after they had recovered, they carried the germs in their own bodies in sufficient strength to infect others. As a result of vaccination and of better sanitation, typhoid has practically disappeared from this country. Since 1913 there have been hardly any cases of people dying from it.

Today, however, we have a disease, tuberculosis, which is equally dreaded. The germs enter the body and often settle in the lungs. In healthy people the cells of the lungs are able to "wall up" the germs, and they do no harm. An operation for tuberculosis is sometimes performed: the infected lung is collapsed so that it may rest and heal. The best cure for this disease is prevention. Any invalid who is suffering from it is kept away from other people as much as possible. To avoid tuberculosis, train yourself in good living habits: he'd good food; get plenty of rest, sleep, fresh air and sunshine; and drink pasteurized milk.

27.2.4 The Story of Transportation

Selected Words

and the

SKP-T

could be

KOB

he was

EFS

in the

TPH-T

is not

S-PBLT

is the

S-T

kind of

KAOEUFPBD

learned to

THROERPBD

led to

THROED

locomotive

HROEBG PHOET EUF

of the

-FT

one of

WUFPB

one of the

WUFPBT

other than

O*ERPB

out and

SKPOUT

that a

THA*

them to

THOEUPL

through the

THRUT

to the

TOT

transportation

TR-PGS

which could

KH-BGD

with the

W-T

Text

The story of transportation is the story of man's courage in his search for newer and better ways of traveling.

In ancient times man traveled on foot through the wilderness with his property on his back, perhaps seeking a more favorable location. It is highly probably that one of the first means of

transportation was a log floating down a stream. Later man learned to hollow it out and make a crude kind of boat, which could be moved along with the aid of sticks. It is not impossible that a rolling log, used on land under heavy objects, was the beginning of the wheel.

When man learned to tame animals and hitch them to his rough cart, he was making a further step in the use of some energy other than his own for transportation. For hundreds of years ships were blown across the seas by the wind, which supplied the necessary energy. In the nineteenth century the invention of the steam engine led to the building of steamboats and locomotives. Later the gasoline engine and the automobile were invented. Finally came air transportation, a great opportunity for further development. Man is still planning and bringing about better and better methods of transportation.

27.2.5 Entertainment

Selected Words

amusement

A PHAOUFPLT

and a

SKPA

and the

SKP-T

entertainment

TAEUPLT

everyone can

KEFRPB

for the

TP-RT

full of

TPUFL

in the

TPH-T

listening to

THROEUFPBG

Middle Ages

PHEUD L AEUPBLG S

of a

AEUF

of the

-FT

orchestra

ORBG STRA

pageant

PAPBLG APBT

science

SKAOEUPBS

sort of

SOFRT

tournament

TO*RPLT

we know

W*EPB

within the

W-PBT

Text

From early times man has enjoyed some sort of entertainment after his day's work. Probably the earliest form was listening to a story-teller around a campfire after a feast.

We know that six hundred years before Christ, the Greeks had theaters in the open air where, following religious worship, plays were given. The Romans gave elaborate circuses for the amusement of the people. The nobles of the Middle Ages were entertained by wandering minstrels and often by a tournament or a pageant.

Boys and girls of today may enjoy the circus, with animals trained to do stunts, a tall man, a dwarf, a fat lady, a very polite clown, and a clown full of mischief! People may attend the opera, in which each player is colorfully dressed and the chorus sings in wonderful costumes.

The inventions of science have brought within the reach of everyone two great forms of entertainment -- the motion picture and the radio. Now nearly everyone can hear the music of a great orchestra in his own home. Man continues to provide himself with new forms of entertainment.

27.2.6 The Hudson’s Bay Company

Selected Words

and was

SKP-FS

did a

TKA

engage in

from the

TPR-T

hemisphere

HEPL STPAOER

Hudson Bay

HUD SOPB PWAEU

in a

TPHA*EU

industrial

STREUL

land to

of the

-FT

one of

WUFPB

one of the

WUFPBT

that the

THAT

them to

THOEUPL

they wanted

THEPTD

to the

TOT

Western Hemisphere

which were

WEURP

would not

WOPBLT

Text

The history of the Hudson's Bay Company covers almost two centuries. In 1670 a "company of adventurers" applied for and received a charter from the King of England permitting them to engage in fur trading, whenever they pleased, in a great stretch of land around Hudson Bay.

Fur trading was then one of the great industries of the western hemisphere. The company's first expedition set out for Canada and was greeted kindly by the Indians, who gladly trapped the animals and brought the skins to the nearest of the newly-built posts. There they exchanged the further for cheap beads, knives, blankets, and other articles which they wanted. The traders remained at their posts, which were located near the biggest Indian campus so that the trappers would not have far to travel to sell their furs.

This industrial enterprise was so successful that another company, the Northwest Fur Company, sprang up. Finally, in 1821, they united under the name of the Hudson's Bay Company. This company did a thorough job of governing the people in its territory and opening up much fertile land to the west. In 1869 the British Government bought the land for Canada.

27.2.7 Vitamin

Selected Words

all the

AULT

as well

SW*EL

as well as

SW-LS

builders of

PWEULD *EFRS

can we

KWAOE

cereal

KRAOERL

chemical

KHEL

for example

TPOERBGS

found that

TPHAOUPBD

in order

TPHORD

scientist

STEUFT

that a

THA*

that the

THAT

to the

TOT

too long

TAOPBG

vitamin

SRAO*EUPB

we know

W*EPB

when the

WHEPBT

who were

WHORP

Text

A long time ago doctors found that people who were without certain foods developed certain diseases. They noticed, for example, that a sickness would occur on ships when sailors went too long without fresh oranges or lemons, but that the disease generally cleared up when the sailors were given these fruits. They concluded that some foods were a valuable protection against disease as well as builders of strength and energy.

Scientists came to the aid of doctors by studying the properties of food and

experiment on animals. They found that foods contained different chemicals of great importance in keeping up well. They called these chemicals "vitamins".

How can we know what foods to eat in order to get enough vitamins? Any well-balanced diet containing meat, milk, butter, eggs, whole cereals, fresh fruits and vegetables -- plus sunshine -- will give us all the vitamins we need.

27.2.8 Responsible Government

Selected Words

British Empire

PWREUT EURB EPL PAOEUR

declaration

TKELG RAEUGS

given the

TKPWEUFPBT

he should he

HERBD

helped to

THOEPD

idea of

KWR-FD

in a

TPHA*EU

in the

TPH-T

independence

P*EPBS

into the

TPHAOT

of a

AEUF

of the

-FT

of this

TH-F

Parliament

PA*RL *PLT

result in

TPHRULT

she should

SHERBD

should be

SHOB

some of

SPHOF

study of

STAO*UFD

that she

STHAE

that the

THAT

the two

TWOT

there were

THR-RP

they were

THERP

to the

TOT

where the

W-RT

which would

KH-LD

Text

The year 1837 is very important in the story of the growth of responsible government in Canada.

In that year there were organized rebellions in both Upper and Lower Canada, where the people of the two nations, English and French, had objections to the way in which they were governed. Some of them even insisted on their right to independence.

This led the British Parliament to inquire into the position in Canada. They sent out as Governor- General a very able man, Lord Durham. When he returned to England, he wrote a record of his study of Canada, known sass Durham Report, which really solved the Canadian problem and helped to bring happiness to the Canadian people.

He had two main suggestions to make. The first was that Canada should be given "responsible government", which meant that she should be given the liberty to handle her own affairs as she wished. The second was that the people of Canada should join in a union which would in time result in the forming of a great nation.

It is upon his declaration of this idea of responsible government that the British Empire is now governed.

27.2.9 Smallpox

Selected Words

and the

SKP-T

began to

STKPWAOPB

Black Death

PWHRABG TK*ET

certificate

SER

did not

TKEUPBLT

disease

TK-Z

found that

TPHAOUPBD

had had

H-D

has been

HAB

he was

EFS

he would

ELD

in the

TPH-T

learned that

THRAERPBD

that he

THAE

there has

THR-Z

they did

TKHE

tremendous

TREPLD

which had

KH-D

who had

WHOD

with you

WU

would have

WOUF

years ago

KWRAOERGS

Text

One hundred and fifty years ago an English doctor, settled in his office with his certificate hanging on his wall, would have agreed with you that he really knew little about medicine. He might give advice on various diseases and resort to strange curious to relieve pain. However, he would certainly have declared that he was helpless against such diseases as smallpox and the "Black Death" which had swept over Europe in great waves, killing thousands.

Nowadays medicine still has some defects, but there has been tremendous development in the methods of preventing and controlling disease. The earliest use of prevention in medicine was made in 1798 by Dr. Edward Jenner, who first tried vaccination to prevent smallpox. His great discovery came when he learned that English milkmaids who had had cowpox did not catch smallpox. Dr. Jenner began to vaccinate people with cowpox and found that they did not get smallpox. Today, owing to vaccination, smallpox has been almost wiped out.

27.2.10 Weather

Selected Words

according to

KORGT

amount of

AFPLT

and is

SKP-S

as a

SA*Z

consisting of

KAOFS

consists of

KAOFS

in our

TPHOUR

in the

TPH-T

is an

SA*PB

is the

S-T

number of

TPHUFPL

of the

-FT

on the

OPBT

or the

ORT

scientific

SKEUFBG

things in

TPHEUPBGS

this is

TH-S

to the

TOT

vane

SRAEPB

which are

KH-R

which is

WEUS

Text

The weather affects many things in our life -- our agriculture (and therefore our food), our transport, the lives of animals, and even the clothes we wear. So we constantly watch it and try to predict it.

The Weather Bureau of Canada consists of thousands of people who are employed to study and record weather conditions, which are reported daily as a guide to the public.

The weather depends on a number of factors which differ widely according to locality and altitude.

One of the most important of these factors is is temperature, which is measured by a thermometer. Another factor is the weight of the air on the land, which is called pressure and is measured by a barometer. Humidity, or the amount of water vapor or moisture in the air, is an important factor in predicting rainfall. This is measured by another scientific instrument, called a hygrograph.

Wind must also be taken into consideration, and weather vanes tell us from which direction it is blowing.

27.2.11 The Dominion of Canada

Selected Words

and the

SKP-T

did not

TKEUPBLT

dominion

TKPHEUPB KWROPB

for the

TP-RT

from the

TPR-T

happened to

THAOPD

in the

TPH-T

into the

TPHAOT

New Brunswick

TPHU PWRUPBS WEUBG

Nova Scotia

TPHOE SRA SKOE SHA

of a

AEUF

of course

-FBG

of it

T-F

of the

-FT

on the

OPBT

one of

WUFPB

one of the

WUFPBT

out of

OUFT

Prince Edward

Prince Edward Island

PREUPBS ED WARD AOEU HRAPBD

shall be

SH-B

should be

SHOB

territory

TERT

that time

THAPLT

the Bible

T PWAOEUBL

to be

TOB

to me

TPHE

to the

TOT

went to

TWOEPBT

what the

WHA*T

when the

WHEPBT

who happened

WHOPD

with the

W-T

Text

When the movement for Canadian confederation came to a head in 1867, and the Canadian delegates went to London for a conference with the Colonial Office, the question arose of what the to me confederation should be called.

The title of "Dominion" was finally chosen on the advice of one of the delegates who happened to read in the Bible the words: "His dominion shall be from sea even to sea, and from the river even to the ends of the earth".

At that time, of course, Canada did not reach from sea to sea, for the only members of the confederation were Upper and Lower Canada -- now Ontario and Quebec -- Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. Gradually, however, the description came to be true.

In the 1869, Canada acquired from the Hudson's Bay Company most of their vast territory, and out of part of it Manitoba was formed in 1870. The dream of a Canada stretching from Atlantic to Pacific was realized when, in 1871, British Columbia was brought into the union.

As for the rest of the provinces, Prince Edward Island joined the Dominion in 1873; and much later, in 1905, the new provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan were created from other parts of the Hudson's Bay Company's territory.

Newfoundland did not choose to join the confederation in 1867. However, in March of 1949, she became the tenth province of the Dominion.

27.2.12 The Great Painters

Selected Words

and the

SKP-T

different from

TKREUFRPB

during the

TKURGT

from the

TPR-T

have been

SR-B

in the

TPH-T

influence

WEPBS

Margarita

PHA*RG REUT TA

Middle Ages

PHEUD L AEUPBLG S

of a

AEUF

of the

-FT

on the

OPBT

painter

PA*EURPBT

that time

THAPLT

the times

there is

THR-LGS

Velasquez

SREL AZ KWEZ

Venetian

SRE TPHAOEGS

Venice

SREPB EUS

when the

WHEPBT

Text

The subjects painted by the great painters of the ages have been widely varied requests, as environment and the thought of the times had influence on the painters.

The work of the early, primitive painters is very different from that of later artists, and the various schools or groups of painters have distinctive characteristics, which aid recognition.

In the late Middle Ages, when the Church was dominant in society, the paints were almost entirely religious in content. When a classic revival came, pictures showed the Greek and Roman influence. The gay social life of Venice was reflected with great skill in the paints of that time, and most artists painted the lovely faces of the Venetian maidens.

Many changes in art curd during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, which saw the growth of realism. There is nothing artificial about Velasquez's portrait of the little maid, Princess Margarita, with her golden curls. The favorite subjects of the Dutch painters were landscapes, interior scenes, and portraits -- sometimes of singers, sometimes of a barber or any jolly fellow.

In the eighteenth century, some French paints showed delicate outdoor scenes; while from the English school came portraits of mothers and children.

27.2.13 Naturalization

Selected Words

able to

TAOEUBL

adoption

TKOPGS

alien

KWRAEUPBL

allegiance

A HREPBLG APBS

and a

SKPA

and is

SKP-S

and the

SKP-T

Canadian

KA TPHAEUD KWRAPB

declaration

TKELG RAEUGS

he has

HEZ

in the

TPH-T

naturalization

TPHARL AOEUZ AEUGS

of the

-FT

one of

WUFPB

Ontario

OPB TAEUR KWROE

purpose of

PUFRPS

that he

THAE

to answer

to be

TOB

to the

TOT

which is

WEUS

Text

Some foreigners have adopted this country as their own. This process is better known as naturalization.

When an alien, or a foreigner has decided to become a citizen, he files a declaration of intention, which is on file for one year. If he receives an official receipt for this from Ottawa, he then files an application for naturalization. This request for citizenship serves to announce his serious purpose of giving up his former country and becoming loyal to the one of his choice.

After three months he appears before a judge of the County Court and is examined by him as to his fitness for naturalization. He must show that he has lived in Canada throughout the required time, that he has a good character and a knowledge of either English or French. He must also be able to answer simple questions on Canadian history and the Canadian system of government.

If the judge believes the alien to be ready for citizenship, the candidate takes the oath of allegiance to the King, promises to regard this as his own country in the future, and is given his final papers. This fortunate man or woman is now a Canadian citizen.

27.2.14 A Great Scientist

Selected Words

able to

TAOEUBL

biography

PWO*EU TKPWRAEF

contribution

KR-BGS

could be

KOB

diabetes

TKAOEBTS

from a

TPRA*

he was

EFS

in the

TPH-T

insulin

SHREUPB

it was

T-FS

knighthood

TPHAO*EUGTD

of a

AEUF

of the

-FT

of this

TH-F

on the

OPBT

to the

TOT

when the

WHEPBT

where he

WRE

world to

TWORLD

World War I

WORLD WAR WUPB

Text

In her book, He Conquered Death, the biography of Sir Frederick Banting, Margaret Mason Shaw has given an excellent description of this great Canadian scientist, the discoverer of the insulin treatment of diabetes.

He came from a farm in Ontario to study medicine at Toronto. Afterserving in World War I, where he was mentioned in dispatches and won the Military Cross, he began research on the problem of diabetes. He met with many setbacks, but happily for mankind, he overcame them. Finally he and his colleagues were able to explain how insulin could be used to check diabetes.

Banting became world-famous overnight, and received a knighthood and many other honors. However, he remained the same quiet, modest doctor, staunch in his friend ships and tender even to the animals he used for his experiments. He was never ashamed of his humble origin or of the friends of his early days.

He met his death tragically in 1941, when the bomber in which he was traveling to England crashed in the vicinity of the Newfoundland coast. It was a matter of profound regret to the whole world to hear of the death of a man to whom humanity was so deeply indebted for his singular contribution to the cause of science.

27.2.15 Samuel Morse and the Telegraph

Selected Words

and the

SKP-T

been in

TPWH-PB

example of

KP-FPL

have been

SR-B

idea of

KWR-FD

in another

is an

SA*PB

led to

THROED

of a

AEUF

of the

-FT

persons with

PWERPBS

revolution

REFGS

saw it

STAU

that would

THALD

they wanted

THEPTD

using it

TAOUFG

wanted to

TWAOPBTD

what was

WHAFS

with the

W-T

Text

The invention of the telegraph is an example of how one discovery or invention has led to another. Once electricity had been discovered, men became occupied with the idea of sending messages by electricity. In 1825 an Englishman invented the electromagnet. When Samuel Morse saw it, he thought out a way of using it to send messages and worked out a code of dots and dashes that would express each letter of a word.

Thus one man's invention led to what was practically a revolution in another field. The telegraph was the first instrument that succeeded in sending a message between two persons without men seeing or hearing one another.

You can imagine how impatient Morse must have been in trying to convince people that his invention would send accurate words -- nouns, verbs, adjectives, or whatever they wanted to send -- over a single strand of wire. Finally the money necessary for constructing a telegraph was collected, and the first message was sent on May 24th, 1844.

27.2.16 Our System of Government

Selected Words

according to

KORGT

and a

SKPA

and he

SKPE

and the

SKP-T

composition

KPOGS

conservatives

KEFRBS

consist of

constitution

TAOUGS

have been

SR-B

he has

HEZ

House of Commons

HOUS -F KPHOPB -S

in the

TPH-T

is not

S-PBLT

is that

STHA

is that the

is the

S-T

kind of

KAOEUFPBD

legislature

HR*UR

liberals

HREUBLS

national

TPHARBL

number of

TPHUFPL

of the

-FT

or the

ORT

Parliament

PA*RL *PLT

population

PHRAEUGS

provincial

PRORBL

Senate

STPHA*T

Senators

STPHO*RS

that the

THAT

the Senate

The Senate

there are

THR-R

through the

THRUT

to its

TOEUTS

Text

The legislature of our national government is the law-making body known as Parliament. It is not bound by a formal constitution; its composition, duties, and powers have developed through the centuries.

Parliament is divided into an upper and a lower house; the Senate, whose members are appointed to office, and the House of Commons, in which each province is represented according to its population. There are ninety-six Senators and two hundred and forty-five members of the House of Commons.

For some time there have been two major political parties -- the Liberals and the Conservatives. The House is controlled by whichever party is in the majority, or has the greater number of members. The speaker of the House -- a kind of chairman or manager -- is chosen by the majority party of the House, and he has considerable power.

The difference between our national legislature and our provincial legislatures is that the latter are on a smaller scale and, except in Quebec, consist of only one elected House. Local government, or the government of smaller districts, is conducted by city, town or county councils.

27.2.17 The Prime Minister of England

Selected Words

according to

KORGT

and the

SKP-T

House of Commons

HOUS -F KPHOPB -S

in the

TPH-T

is the

S-T

legislation

SHRA*EUGS

majority

PHAEUPBLGT

of a

AEUF

of the

-FT

Prime Minister

PRAOEUPL/PHEUPB/STER

republic

RUBLG

than the

THAPBT

that the

THAT

the president

T-PT

the President

T*PT

those of

THOEFS

to the

TOT

United States

*US

when the

WHEPBT

which are

KH-R

Text

The highest official in the government of England is the Prime Minister. When an election has occurred and one party has secured a majority in the House of Commons -- an assembly similar to the Canadian House -- the King appoints the leader of the successful party as Prime Minister. He, having accepted, advises the King as to which members of his party are his choice for cabinet ministers, and the composition of the new cabinet is then officially approved by the King. The Prime Minister chooses a cabinet position for himself, too, often that of First Lord of the Treasury.

The Prime Minister has extensive powers over legislation -- powers which are far greater than the presidential powers of the President of the United States, or indeed of those of any leader of a republic. Some think that the English system has an advantage over most other forms of government.

The Prime Minister and his cabinet have no specified term of office. When the House of Commons has given them a "vote of no confidence", the entire Cabinet has, according to custom, resigned. Otherwise, they remain in power until a general election changes the majority party.

27.2.18 Confederation

Selected Words

all the

AULT

amendment

A PHEPLT

and an

SKPAPB

and the

SKP-T

appointment

POEUPLT

as a

SA*Z

at a

T*A

confederation

KOPB TPED RAEUGS

constitution

TAOUGS

executive

SKAOUF

given to

TKPWOEUFPB

House of Commons

HOUS -F KPHOPB -S

idea of

KWR-FD

into effect

SPWAOEFBGT

judicial

SKWREURBL

legislative

SHRA*EUF

North America

TPHA* TPHA*

of the

-FT

Prince Edward

Prince Edward Island

PREUPBS ED WARD AOEU HRAPBD

them to

THOEUPL

to the

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The idea of the confederation of the provinces of British north America, suggested by Lord Durham, became a fact in 1867.

In 1864 delegates from Upper and Lower Canada, the Maritime Provinces and Newfoundland met at a convention in Quebec to discuss this question. After considerable talk and many amendments, they drew up a list of resolutions as a basis for Confederation. Then they returned to their various provinces and submitted them to their legislative bodies for approval. All the provinces except Prince Edward Island and Newfoundland agreed to accept the proposal.

In 1866 delegates went to London to discuss the details with the Colonial Office, and on July 1, 1867, the British North America Act came into effect.

The Act gave legislative and judicial power in Dominion matters to the Governor-General -- whose appointment was still made by the Colonial Office -- an appointed Senate and an elective House of Commons, all centered at Ottawa; while executive power over certain affairs were given to the provincial governments.

So by this Act, the citizens of Canada found their country united, and the Dominion of Canada, with its own constitution and governing body, an establish fact.