24 The -ion and -tion word endings

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24.1 -ion consonant cluster for -shun sound

The -ion ending is written using -GS when the ending sound is -shun, in words such as vision, abrasion, and cushion.

SREUGS

vision vision vision vision

A PWRAEUGS

abrasion abrasion abrasion abrasion

KUGS

cushion cushion cushion cushion

24.2 -tion consonant cluster for -kshun sound

The -tion ending is written using -BGS when the ending sound is -kshun, in words such as ration, motion, and station.

RAGS

ration ration ration ration

PHOEGS

motion motion motion motion

STAEUGS

station station station station

24.3 -ion ending when not -shun sound

Some words ending in -ion do not have the shun sound. Examples of such words are minion, onion, and carrion. These words are written with the suffix stroke KWROPB to represent -ion.

PHEUPB KWROPB

minion minion minion minion

OPB KWROPB

onion onion onion onion

KAEUR KWROPB

carrion carrion carrion carrion

It is possible to add -ion to any word using the suffix stroke KWROPB, even if the word+suffix is never used or as part of the dictionary. Experiment with world, Bob, and knit (note how Plover will double the final consonant in the latter two words.)

WORLD KWROPB

worldion worldion worldion worldion

PWO*PB KWROPB

Bobbion Bobbion Bobbion Bobbion

TPHEUT KWROPB

knittion knittion knittion knittion

24.4 Dropping intermediate sound with common words

Words ending in the -shun and -kshun sounds are frequently long, and multi-stroke. For relatively common words, some sounds can be dropped to form one-stroke words. Examples of such words are relation, possession and organization.

24.5 Briefs

These are just some examples of -kshun words that can be written in one stroke.

  • nation
  • action
  • attention
  • addition
  • deletion
  • observation
  • prediction
  • representation
  • reduction
  • registration
  • suggestion
  • television
  • transportation
  • tradition
  • instruction

24.6 Exercises

24.6.1 Write with sound

Controls
  1. Meet me at the bus station. Meet me at the bus station. Meet me at the bus station.
  2. East, a direction. East, a direction. East, a direction.
  3. Arrow, a rod with a pointed end used for shooting from a bow. A mark with a pointed end to show direction. Arrow, a rod with a pointed end used for shooting from a bow. A mark with a pointed end to show direction. Arrow, a rod with a pointed end used for shooting from a bow. A mark with a pointed end to show direction.
  4. Irrigation is often done by means of ditches. Irrigation is often done by means of ditches. Irrigation is often done by means of ditches.
  5. Listen, hear. Pay attention. Listen, hear. Pay attention. Listen, hear. Pay attention.
  6. Course, a part of a meal. Direction or route. Course, a part of a meal. Direction or route. Course, a part of a meal. Direction or route.
  7. We are putting the decorations on the Christmas tree. We are putting the decorations on the Christmas tree. We are putting the decorations on the Christmas tree.
  8. Plantation, a large farm. Plantation, a large farm. Plantation, a large farm.
  9. He lived on a plantation. He lived on a plantation. He lived on a plantation.
  10. My father visited a large rubber plantation in South America. My father visited a large rubber plantation in South America. My father visited a large rubber plantation in South America.
  11. Language, the speech of a nation. Language, the speech of a nation. Language, the speech of a nation.
  12. The boys decorated the Christmas tree. The boys decorated the Christmas tree. The boys decorated the Christmas tree.
  13. Toward, in the direction of. Toward, in the direction of. Toward, in the direction of.
  14. Turned, moved or made to move in a circle. Changed position or direction. Changed. Became. Turned, moved or made to move in a circle. Changed position or direction. Changed. Became. Turned, moved or made to move in a circle. Changed position or direction. Changed. Became.
  15. Vacation, a period of rest. Vacation, a period of rest. Vacation, a period of rest.
  16. It is a tin rattle. It is a tin rattle. It is a tin rattle.
  17. The teacher came by the steam cars. The teacher came by the steam cars. The teacher came by the steam cars.
  18. She had a ticket. She had a ticket. She had a ticket.
  19. She bought the ticket. She bought the ticket. She bought the ticket.
  20. She bought it at the station. She bought it at the station. She bought it at the station.
  21. The ticket agent sold it to her. The ticket agent sold it to her. The ticket agent sold it to her.
  22. The teacher had a trunk. The teacher had a trunk. The teacher had a trunk.
  23. The trunk was her baggage. The trunk was her baggage. The trunk was her baggage.
  24. She brought it to the station. She brought it to the station. She brought it to the station.
  25. That is a signal. That is a signal. That is a signal.
  26. The train moves out of the station. The train moves out of the station. The train moves out of the station.
  27. The baby has many toys. The baby has many toys. The baby has many toys.
  28. She likes to play with a key. She likes to play with a key. She likes to play with a key.
  29. The baby has a little tray. The baby has a little tray. The baby has a little tray.
  30. Base, the bottom part. A station. Base, the bottom part. A station. Base, the bottom part. A station.
  31. The officer had told the soldier to come to attention. The officer had told the soldier to come to attention. The officer had told the soldier to come to attention.
  32. Auntie, the sister of one's mother or father. The wife of one's uncle. Auntie, the sister of one's mother or father. The wife of one's uncle. Auntie, the sister of one's mother or father. The wife of one's uncle.
  33. The boy could not figure out what one of the instructions meant. The boy could not figure out what one of the instructions meant. The boy could not figure out what one of the instructions meant.
  34. Auntie Ruth and I went to meet my uncle at the station. Auntie Ruth and I went to meet my uncle at the station. Auntie Ruth and I went to meet my uncle at the station.
  35. The teacher called the boy's attention to his mistake in adding. The teacher called the boy's attention to his mistake in adding. The teacher called the boy's attention to his mistake in adding.
  36. He did not get much attention. He did not get much attention. He did not get much attention.
  37. You should pay careful attention in school. You should pay careful attention in school. You should pay careful attention in school.
  38. West, a direction. A region. West, a direction. A region. West, a direction. A region.
  39. Follow these directions. Follow these directions. Follow these directions.
  40. Crawl, to move slowly by drawing the body along. A creeping motion. Crawl, to move slowly by drawing the body along. A creeping motion. Crawl, to move slowly by drawing the body along. A creeping motion.
  41. Careless, not taking care; not paying attention. Careless, not taking care; not paying attention. Careless, not taking care; not paying attention.
  42. Caught, got by hunting. Got to in time. Reached for and held; as, caught a ball. Got; as, caught a cold. Got held. Got attention. Caught, got by hunting. Got to in time. Reached for and held; as, caught a ball. Got; as, caught a cold. Got held. Got attention. Caught, got by hunting. Got to in time. Reached for and held; as, caught a ball. Got; as, caught a cold. Got held. Got attention.
  43. Camp, a tent or hut or a collection of them used for a vacation or a short stay. A place where soldiers or workmen may live for a time. To stay at a camp. Camp, a tent or hut or a collection of them used for a vacation or a short stay. A place where soldiers or workmen may live for a time. To stay at a camp. Camp, a tent or hut or a collection of them used for a vacation or a short stay. A place where soldiers or workmen may live for a time. To stay at a camp.
  44. Movies, motion pictures. Movies, motion pictures. Movies, motion pictures.
  45. Listen, pay attention in order to hear or to understand. Listen, pay attention in order to hear or to understand. Listen, pay attention in order to hear or to understand.
  46. Lie, say what is not true. Rest in a flat position. Lie, say what is not true. Rest in a flat position. Lie, say what is not true. Rest in a flat position.
  47. The invention of the steam engine made railroad possible. The invention of the steam engine made railroad possible. The invention of the steam engine made railroad possible.

24.6.2 Write random sentences

A random subset of sentences will be synthesized. Be patient with the synthesis. It will take a few seconds, especially the first time. The loweest possible WPM is 80, so to decrease overall WPM, increase word gap.

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